Looks like, from your ifconfig, that your wifi hardware is recognized, but you’re not connecting to a network.
I think the quickest and easiest way to get the wifi adapter working is to into interfaces and change the values.
You can access this file with the command
sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces
(You probably already know this because you can clearly access the file).
Change the login SSID and PWD to the appropriate values for your network.
Then you can do one of two things:
Make the login dynamic by changing “static” to “dhcp” and erasing the next 5 lines (leaving the SSID and PWD in place). If you do this, you’ll have to figure out the assigned IP value.
Change the next 5 lines after “static” to the appropriate values. Those you should be able to find from any computer already connected to the network you want to get on.
CTRL-X out of nano, saving the file, and reboot. Does this help?