Yes, it is certainly possible. You can create an array of 180 elements, and then loop 180 times. In that loop, you can read the sensor value, write it to the corresponding array element, and then delay.
With BrickPi3, in Python it would look something like this:
# Add code here to import the BrickPi3 module and instantiate
# Add code here to configure the sensor port for the sensor type and mode
# Create an array with 180 elements
ResultsArray = [0 for r in range(180)]
# Loop 180 times
for r in range(180):
# Read the sensor and save the value in the array
# Here I'm assuming the BrickPi3 object is called 'BP'
# Also assumed is that the ultrasonic sensor is on sensor port 1
ResultsArray[r] = BP.get_sensor(BP.PORT_1)
# delay for 0.1 seconds